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Stick welding consists of a rod of material covered with a flux. The rod is used here as an electrode in the electrical circuit. Melting is achieved by a very high temperature which is obtained by an electric arc between the workpiece and the electrode. The main functions of the electrode coating are to ensure the stability of the arc and to protect the molten metal from the atmosphere. with the gases created during the decomposition of the coating by the heat of the arc. This shielding controls the mechanical properties, chemical composition and metallurgical structure of the weld metal, as well as the characteristics of the electrode.

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The welding vocabulary is very clear to understand quickly, for the weld bead we use the same words for all welding positions. The two metals to be joined will be called "base metals", while the weld bead will be a mixture (molten metal) of these base metals with the filler metal. The base metals can be homogeneous (of the same nature such as steel to steel, copper to copper...) or heterogeneous. Sometimes you may need to weld different types of steel. For example, on buckets fitted to public works machinery, it is possible to build the structure of the part in basic structural steel (S 235) and to reinforce the tooth or blade with much more wear-resistant steels such as hardox 500.

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An important aspect of heat flow is the study of the cooling rate in welding. These speeds, of the order of several tens of degrees per second, are different from those encountered in other fields of metallurgy such as steelmaking and foundry where the magnitude control is a few degrees per minute.

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Ionisation is the removal of one or more electrons from the electronic structure of an atom, turning it into an ion. Our ARC will ionise the welding gas ...

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